Containers are just normal Linux Processes with additional configuration applied.

容器只是应用了附加配置的普通 Linux 进程。

redis container

lanch redis-server process

Usage: docker run [OPTIONS] IMAGE [COMMAND] [ARG…] docker run –help -d, –detach Run container in background and print container ID –name string Assign a name to the container

docker run -d --name=db redis:alpine

在后台启动一个 container namedb 的容器, 并打印容器的 ID

Unable to find image ‘redis:alpine’ locally alpine: Pulling from library/redis 63bc94deeb28: Pull complete 828e397560e3: Pull complete 5902d88df6c2: Pull complete 157b2c953c6d: Pull complete b5212c16b59d: Pull complete 5f8f01031701: Pull complete Digest: sha256:613ab7e1c0175cae18b69c291512e5e8f1129175f6617ff2126b7ac9a1e5c550 Status: Downloaded newer image for redis:alpine 0a5ceea3df52e200d45772c4507b20d7c95a97dcd3939cb33a8d5bc1b842e334


pidof <process-name>
pidof redis-server
ps aux | grep redis-server
docker top container-name

docker top can help us identify information about the process including the PID (Process ID) and PPID (Parent Process ID)

docker top db

pstree will list all of the sub processes

pstree -c -p -A $(pgrep dockerd)

Process Directory

Linux is just a series of magic files and contents, this makes it fun to explore and navigate to see what is happening under the covers, and in some cases, change the contents to see the results. The configuration for each process is defined within the /proc directory. If you know the process ID, then you can identify the configuration directory.

每一个 process 的配置都定义在 /proc 文件夹下. 如果知道 process ID, 就能找到该进程的配置文件夹

redis-server 进程的配置

找到 redis-server 的 pid

DBPID=$(pgrep redis-server)
echo Redis is $DBPID
ls /proc

查看 redis-server 进程的环境变量

ls /proc/$DBPID
cat /proc/$DBPID/environ


HOSTNAME=f3b9624ce46cSHLVL=2REDIS_DOWNLOAD_SHA= 61db74eabf6801f057fd24b590232f2f337d422280fd19486 eca03be87d3a82bHOME=/home/redisPATH=/usr/local/sb in:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin REDIS_DOWNLOAD_URL=


'HOSTNAME=5fba1658e4ceSHLVL=2REDIS_DOWNLOAD_SHA=61db74eabf6801f057fd24b590232f2f337d422280fd19486eca03be87d3a82bHOME=/home/redisPATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/binREDIS_DOWNLOAD_URL='.match(/[A-Z]+=[^A-Z]*/g) // regexp 解析查看 key=value

docker 容器里执行 env 命令

docker exec -it db env

env 内容如下:

PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin HOSTNAME=f3b9624ce46c TERM=xterm REDIS_VERSION=5.0.7 REDIS_DOWNLOAD_URL= REDIS_DOWNLOAD_SHA=61db74eabf6801f057fd24b590232f2f337d422280fd19486eca03be87d3a82b HOME=/root


One of the fundamental parts of a container is namespaces. The concept of namespaces is to limit what processes can see and access certain parts of the system, such as other network interfaces or processes When a container is started, the container runtime, such as Docker, will create new namespaces to sandbox the process. By running a process in it’s own Pid namespace, it will look like it’s the only process on the system.

  • Mount (mnt)
  • Process (pid)
  • Network (net)
  • Interprocess Communication (ipc)
  • UTS (hostnames) aka unix time-sharing system
  • User ID (user)
  • Control group (cgroup)

lanched “contained” processes

Without using a runtime such as Docker, a process can still operate within it’s own namespace. One tool to help is unshare.

不用 docker 这个 runtime, 也可以用 unshare 这个工具来创建一个拥有自己的 namespace 的进程.

unshare --help

Run a program with some namespaces unshared from the parent.

运行一个程序, 不共享父进程的某些 namespaces

unshare --fork --pid --mount-proc bash

namespace 是啥

Namespaces are inode locations on disk. this allows for processes to shared/reused the same namespace, allowing them to view and interact.

namespace 是硬盘上的 inode. 这允许 processes 共享/复用相同的 namespace, 允许进程之间可以互相看得到, 互相交流.

查看 redis-server 的所有 namespace

ls -liha /proc/$DBPID/ns

attach process to existing NameSpaces

nsenter run a program with namespaces of other processes.

在其他进程的 namespace 中运行一个程序

nsenter --help
nsenter [options] [<program> [<argument>...]]
 -a, --all              enter all namespaces
 -t, --target <pid>     target process to get namespaces from
 -m, --mount[=<file>]   enter mount namespace
 -u, --uts[=<file>]     enter UTS namespace (hostname etc)
 -i, --ipc[=<file>]     enter System V IPC namespace
 -n, --net[=<file>]     enter network namespace
 -p, --pid[=<file>]     enter pid namespace
 -C, --cgroup[=<file>]  enter cgroup namespace
 -U, --user[=<file>]    enter user namespace
 -S, --setuid <uid>     set uid in entered namespace
 -G, --setgid <gid>     set gid in entered namespace
     --preserve-credentials do not touch uids or gids
 -r, --root[=<dir>]     set the root directory
 -w, --wd[=<dir>]       set the working directory
 -F, --no-fork          do not fork before exec'ing <program>
 -Z, --follow-context   set SELinux context according to --target PID
nsenter --target $DBPID --mount --uts --ipc --net --pid ps aux

redis-servermount, uts, ipc, net, pid 这些命名空间里执行 ps 命令

share namespaces of redis-server

With Docker, these namespaces can be shared using the syntax container:<container-name>. For example, the command below will connect nginx to the DB namespace

docker run -d --name=web --net=container:db nginx:alpine

启动 nginx 的容器. 共享 redis-servernet namespace

  • 查看 nginx 容器的 net 的 namespace
 ls -lha /proc/$WEBPID/ns/ | grep net

dr-x–x–x 2 systemd-network systemd-journal 0 Dec 24 13:40 . dr-xr-xr-x 9 systemd-network systemd-journal 0 Dec 24 13:40 .. lrwxrwxrwx 1 systemd-network systemd-journal 0 Dec 24 13:40 cgroup -> cgroup:[4026531835] lrwxrwxrwx 1 systemd-network systemd-journal 0 Dec 24 13:40 ipc -> ipc:[4026532225] lrwxrwxrwx 1 systemd-network systemd-journal 0 Dec 24 13:40 mnt -> mnt:[4026532223] lrwxrwxrwx 1 systemd-network systemd-journal 0 Dec 24 13:40 net -> net:[4026532160] – 注意这个是共享的 redis-server 的 net 命名空间 lrwxrwxrwx 1 systemd-network systemd-journal 0 Dec 24 13:40 pid -> pid:[4026532226] lrwxrwxrwx 1 systemd-network systemd-journal 0 Dec 24 13:40 user -> user:[4026531837] lrwxrwxrwx 1 systemd-network systemd-journal 0 Dec 24 13:40 uts -> uts:[4026532224]

  • 查看 redis-server 容器的 net 命名空间
ls -lha /proc/$DBPID/ns/ | grep net

lrwxrwxrwx 1 999 packer 0 Dec 24 13:39 net -> net:[4026532160]


CGroups limit the amount of resources a process can consume. These cgroups are values defined in particular files within the /proc directory. CGroups 用来限制一个进程可以使用的资源的量. cgroups 的值被定义在 /proc 文件夹下的特定文件里.

查看 redis-server 的 CGroups

cat /proc/$DBPID/cgroup
  • 得到 redis-server 的容器 ID
DBID=$(docker ps --no-trunc | grep 'db' | awk '{print $1}')
  • 查看 redis-server 的 cpu stats 和 usages
cat /sys/fs/cgroup/cpu,cpuacct/docker/$DBID/cpuacct.stat
  • 查看 redis-server 的 cpu shares
cat /sys/fs/cgroup/cpu,cpuacct/docker/$DBID/cpu.shares
  • 查看所有容器的 memory 的 docker cgroups 配置
ls /sys/fs/cgroup/memory/docker

查看所有的 CGroups

 ls /sys/fs/cgroup

配置 cgroups

用 cgroups 配置 内存, memory quotes 存放在 memory.limit_in_bytes 这个文件

  • 容器默认没有内存限制
docker stats db --no-strem ; 只查看一条信息 
  • 限制 db 这个容器的内存使用
echo 8000000 > /sys/fs/cgroup/memory/docker/$DBID/memory.limit_in_bytes

Seccomp 限制可以使用的 syscall

When assigned to a process it means the process will be limited to a subset of the ability system calls. If it attempts to call a blocked system call is will recieve the error “Operation Not Allowed”. 容器默认可以使用的 syscall

cat /proc/$DBPID/status
cat /proc/$DBPID/status | grep Seccomp

The flag meaning are: 0: disabled 1: strict 2: filtering


Capabilities are groupings about what a process or user has permission to do. These Capabilities might cover multiple system calls or actions, such as changing the system time or hostname.

  • 查看 redis-server 的 Capabilities

The status file also containers the Capabilities flag. A process can drop as many Capabilities as possible to ensure it’s secure.

cat /proc/$DBPID/status | grep ^Cap


CapInh: 00000000a80425fb CapPrm: 0000000000000000 CapEff: 0000000000000000 CapBnd: 00000000a80425fb CapAmb: 0000000000000000

  • 解析 redis-server 的 flags

The flags are stored as a bitmask that can be decoded with capsh

capsh --decode=00000000a80425fb


0x00000000a80425fb=cap_chown,cap_dac_override,cap_fowner, cap_fsetid,cap_kill,cap_setgid,cap_setuid,cap_setpcap, cap_net_bind_service,cap_net_raw,cap_sys_chroot,cap_mknod, cap_audit_write,cap_setfcap


  1. what is a container
  2. awk